Patna High Court’s Landmark Judgment on Reservation Quotas: A Defining Moment in Bharatiya Politics

Paromita Das

GG News Bureau

New Delhi, 25 June. In a landmark ruling, the Patna High Court overturned the Bihar government’s attempt to raise reservation quotas for marginalized communities beyond the Supreme Court-mandated 50% limit. This judgment has profound implications, not only for Bihar but for the broader debate on affirmative action in Bharat.

Background and the Bihar Government’s Initiative

Chief Minister Nitish Kumar’s government proposed increasing the reservation quotas in educational institutions and government jobs from 50% to 65%. This initiative was based on a recent caste survey indicating that 65% of Bihar’s population comprises Other Backward Classes (OBC), Extremely Backward Classes (EBC), Scheduled Castes (SC), and Scheduled Tribes (ST). The rationale behind this move was to ensure better representation and social justice for these historically marginalized groups.

Amendment bill received unanimous support


The amendment bill, which received unanimous support, increased the current 3% quota for OBC women and raised quotas for EBCs from 18 to 25%, OBCs from 12 to 18%, SCs from 16 to 20%, and STs from 1 to 2 %. However, given that the Chief Minister has now sided with the BJP, the court’s ruling has a big impact on the social justice program and the dynamics of the National Democratic Alliance coalition. In an uncommon display of cooperation, the BJP backed the caste survey in spite of its internal conflicts.

The Supreme Court’s 50% Ceiling on Reservations

The Supreme Court of India, in the landmark Indra Sawhney judgment of 1992, established a 50% ceiling on reservations to ensure a balance between affirmative action and merit. This judgment has been a cornerstone in Bharat’s reservation policy, aimed at preventing excessive fragmentation and ensuring societal cohesion. However, it has been a subject of debate and contention, especially in states with a high proportion of marginalized communities.

Patna High Court’s Verdict

The Patna High Court’s verdict to nullify the Bihar government’s decision to increase the reservation limit is a critical assertion of judicial oversight over state policies. The court emphasized the need to adhere to the Supreme Court’s guidelines, reinforcing the legal principle that reservations should not exceed 50%. This decision underscores the judiciary’s role in maintaining constitutional boundaries and ensuring that state policies align with national legal standards.

INDIA bloc has a strong cause to rally around

The opposition now has a strong cause to rally around under the INDIA bloc’s banner. The bloc’s larger social justice narrative is consistent with the call for a national caste census, which supports population-based proportional reservations. This action could energize marginalized communities by emphasizing representation that is commensurate with their population weight. The decision of the Patna High Court is significant. Mr. Nitish Kumar’s commitment to the NDA will be put to the test along with his long-standing support for increased representation of the Dalit and EBC populations. Meanwhile, the opposition sees a chance to advocate for legislative modifications to overturn the Congress-promised 50% reservation cap. In addition to its political implications, the court’s ruling affects grassroots movements throughout Bharat.

Implications for Bihar and Beyond

The Patna High Court’s decision has significant political and social implications:

  1. Political Impact: For Chief Minister Nitish Kumar, this verdict is a setback to his administration’s efforts to bolster support among marginalized communities. The government’s proposal was seen as a strategic move to gain political capital by addressing the needs of the majority population segment in Bihar.
  2. Social Justice and Representation: The ruling reignites the debate on how best to achieve social justice and adequate representation for marginalized communities within the legal framework. While the intention behind increasing quotas is to uplift underrepresented groups, the constitutional limit poses a challenge.
  3. National Debate on Reservation Policies: This judgment could influence other states contemplating similar measures and spark a nationwide discussion on the adequacy and limits of the current reservation system. It calls into question whether the 50% ceiling, set decades ago, still serves the intended purpose in the contemporary socio-economic context.
  4. Judicial Precedents: The decision reinforces the Supreme Court’s precedent, reaffirming that any changes to the reservation policy must be within the bounds of constitutional provisions. It highlights the importance of judicial review in upholding the rule of law and constitutional principles.


The Patna High Court’s judgment overturning Bihar’s attempt to extend reservation quotas beyond 50% marks a pivotal moment in Bharatiya politics and jurisprudence. It reflects the ongoing tension between state-led initiatives to promote social justice and the constitutional mandates designed to balance such efforts. Presumptive caste groups such as the Gujjars, Patidars, Marathas, and Jats may now step up their agitations. These groups have been requesting reservations to counterbalance the diminishing profits from agriculture. As Bharat continues to grapple with issues of representation and equality, this verdict serves as a reminder of the complexities involved in implementing affirmative action within a diverse and populous democracy. The discourse it generates may well pave the way for a re-evaluation of reservation policies in the future, ensuring they meet the evolving needs of society while adhering to constitutional safeguards.

Comments are closed.