Congress 2029: Post-Election Dynamics and Rahul Gandhi’s Leadership  

Paromita Das

GG News Bureau

New Delhi, 10th July. The recent Parliament session, the first after the 2024 Lok Sabha elections, showcased a Congress party rejuvenated by its performance and driven by a renewed sense of purpose. Despite a significant decline in BJP/NDA seats, Congress made notable gains, almost reaching the 100-seat mark. This resurgence has not only bolstered the party’s morale but has also invigorated the leaders of the Indian National Developmental Inclusive Alliance (I.N.D.I.A).

Post-Election Dynamics

The oath-taking ceremony of the newly elected Members of Parliament (MPs) was a spectacle of varying emotions, from inspiring moments to contentious exchanges. Rahul Gandhi, now assuming the role of Leader of Opposition after two decades in active politics, has emerged as a central figure in Congress’s strategy moving forward. His leadership is seen as crucial in steering the party through the complexities of the upcoming political landscape.

The I.N.D.I.A Alliance

The I.N.D.I.A Alliance, an amalgamation of various opposition parties, has emerged as a formidable force. The alliance’s ability to present a united front and articulate a cohesive vision for India’s future will be vital. Rahul Gandhi’s leadership in this coalition is expected to be a balancing act, ensuring that the diverse interests within the alliance are harmonized.

Complacency and Overconfidence

During the previous elections, the BJP’s slogan “Abki Bar 400 Par” (This time, we will cross 400 seats) created a sense of inevitability among its supporters that victory was assured. This overconfidence led many to believe their individual votes were unnecessary, resulting in lower voter turnout. This phenomenon likely contributed significantly to the reduced vote percentage.

Voter Inactivity

The sense of complacency translated into reduced voter turnout, despite a small numerical difference. This indicates a lack of voter engagement and participation, crucial in influencing election outcomes. Voter inactivity poses a serious threat to democracy, affecting election results and undermining the credibility of the democratic process.

Lower Seat Outcomes

The First-Past-The-Post (FPTP) system also played a role in the BJP’s significantly lower seat count, despite a narrow vote margin, due to its winner-takes-all nature. In FPTP, the candidate with the most votes in a constituency wins, regardless of the overall vote distribution. Thus, even if the BJP lost by small margins in numerous constituencies, it received no seats in those areas. As a result, while the aggregated vote share might appear close, the seat count can be disproportionately low. This system magnifies minor vote differences into substantial disparities in legislative representation, affecting the BJP’s overall seat tally.

Future Parliamentary Dynamics to Be Expected

The way members of the Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha are acting indicates that there will be a lot of upheaval and heated discussions in Parliament in the upcoming years. Even though Congress only won 44 seats in the 2014 election, it has always been able to make a big political impact. This was made clear when Prime Minister Narendra Modi was forced to backtrack on his plans for land reform and when the terrible suicide of Hyderabad student Rohit Vemula caused disruptions in Parliament.

Congress’s Opposition Role

Congress is perfectly free to criticize the administration vehemently. The leaders of the party appear split into two groups: those who think that persistent attacks will weaken the Modi government well before 2029 and make it easier for Congress to regain power, and those who fear that the Modi government might fall under constant pressure. Anything is possible in politics.

The Benefits of Fostering Grassroots

The Congress must gain at least 150 seats in the Lok Sabha and cut the BJP’s number in order to build a stable administration at the national level. The 2024 election results thus far may be a mirage if Congress does not fortify its organizational and grassroots base in critical states. It seems doubtful that the BJP’s score would be surpassed in subsequent elections unless there is strong grassroots support.

Direct Confrontations with the BJP

Congress and the BJP are directly competing in states like Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Karnataka, Gujarat, and Rajasthan. Only 19 of the 119 seats that these states send to the Lok Sabha were won by the Congress in the 2024 elections. Congress must win at least 60 of these 119 seats in order to surpass the BJP in 2029, severely undermining the BJP’s hegemony.

Challenges Ahead

Despite the optimistic atmosphere, the path to victory in the 2029 elections is fraught with challenges for Congress. The BJP’s poor performance in the 2024 elections did not stem from a significant voter shift towards Congress but rather from a confluence of other factors:

  1. Internal Conflicts within BJP/NDA: The BJP faced internal dissent and fragmentation within its ranks, leading to a dilution of its voter base. Several key allies distanced themselves, weakening the NDA coalition.
  2. Economic and Social Issues: Economic slowdown, rising unemployment, and social unrest over controversial policies eroded the BJP’s support. However, these issues might not necessarily translate into a permanent voter shift to Congress unless addressed effectively.
  3. Regional Parties’ Influence: Regional parties continue to play a pivotal role in Indian politics. The success of Congress in forging alliances with these parties will be crucial. The dynamics in states like Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal, and Tamil Nadu, where regional parties dominate, will significantly impact Congress’s chances.


The road to the 2029 elections is complex and unpredictable. While Congress’s improved performance in 2024 has given it a much-needed boost, the party’s success will depend on its ability to navigate the multifaceted challenges ahead. The political landscape remains fluid, and strategic adaptability will be key to converting the current momentum into a definitive victory.

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